An apodized chirped in-fibre Bragg grating that has a linear dispersion characteristic is reported. The frequency components of an optical pulse (centre wavelength 1551 nm; 10 GHz bandwidth) incident on the grating are reflected with a relative delay that varies linearly from 0 to 130 ps across the spectral width of the pulse. The dispersion compensator is used to correct for the dispersion in a 100 km link (nondispersion shifted fibre) operating at a 10 Gbit/s transmission rate and a wavelength of 1551 nm.
A black hole is a highly harmful host that disposes of visiting agents upon their arrival. It is known that it is possible for a team of mobile agents to locate a black hole in an asynchronous ring network if each node is equipped with a whiteboard of at least O(log n) dedicated bits of storage. In this paper, we consider the less powerful token model: each agent has has available a bounded number of tokens that can be carried, placed on a node or removed from it. All tokens are identical (i.e., indistinguishable) and no other form of communication or coordination is available to the agents. We first of all prove that a team of two agents is sufficient to locate the black hole in finite time even in this weaker coordination model. Furthermore, we prove that this can be accomplished using only O(nlogn) moves in total, which is optimal, the same as with whiteboards. Finally, we show that to achieve this result the agents need to use only O(1) tokens each.
Design by Contract (DbC) is a software development methodology that focuses on clearly defining the interfaces between components to produce better quality object-oriented software. The idea behind DbC is that a method defines a contract stating the requirements a client needs to fulfill to use it, the precondition, and the properties it ensures after its execution, the postcondition. Though there exists ample support for DbC for sequential programs, applying DbC to concurrent programs presents several challenges. Using Java as the target programming language, this paper tackles such challenges by augmenting the Java Modelling Language (JML) and modifying the JML compiler to generate Runtime Assertion Checking (RAC) code to support DbC in concurrent programs. We applied our solution in a carefully designed case study on a highly concurrent industrial software system from the telecommunications domain to assess the effectiveness of contracts as test oracles in detecting and diagnosing functional faults in concurrent software. Based on these results, clear and objective requirements are defined for contracts to be effective test oracles for concurrent programs whilst balancing the effort to design them. Main results include that contracts of a realistic level of completeness and complexity can detect around 76% of faults and reduce the diagnosis effort for such faults by at least ten times. We, therefore, show that DbC can not only be applied to concurrent software but can also be a valuable tool to improve the economics of software engineering.
Buildings play a significant role in climate change mitigation. In North America, energy used to construct and operate buildings accounts for some 40% of total energy use, largely originating from fossil fuels. The strategic reduction of these energy demands requires knowledge of potential upgrades prior to a building's construction. Furthermore, renewable energy generation integrated into buildings façades and district systems can improve the resiliency of community infrastructure. However, loads that are non-coincidental with on-site generation can cause load balancing issues. This imbalance is typically due to solar resources peaking at noon, whereas building loads typically peak in the morning and late afternoon or evenings. Ideally, the combination of on-site generation and localized storage could remedy such load balancing issues while reducing the need for fossil fuels. In response to these issues, this paper contributes a methodology that co-optimizes building designs and district technologies as an integrated community energy system. A distributed evolutionary algorithm is proposed that can navigate over 10154 potential community permutations. This is the first time in literature that a methodology demonstrates the co-optimization of buildings and district energy systems to reduce energy use in buildings and balance loads at this scale. The proposed solution is reproducible and scalable for future community masterplanning studies.
A 100-kDa protein that is a main component of the microsomal fraction from rabbit gastric mucosa is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in the presence of 0.2% Triton X-100. Microsomes from rabbit gastric mucosa possess activity of H,K-ATPase but not activity of Na,K-ATPase. Incubation of microsomes with 5 μM fluorescein 5′-isothiocyanate (FITC) results in both an inhibition of H,K-ATPase and labeling of a protein with an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to the mobility of the protein phosphorylated by PKA. The data suggest that the α-subunit of H,K-ATPase can be a potential target for PKA phosphorylation.
When hydrogen loading is used to enhance the photosensitivity of silica-based optical waveguides and fibres, the presence of molecular hydrogen dissolved in the glass matrix changes the effective index of propagation of guided optical modes by as much as 0.05%. Real-time monitoring of the reflectivity spectrum of Bragg gratings written in such conditions shows that the centre wavelength follows the changes in hydrogen concentration due to diffusion and reaction with glass defects.
The rise of game development and game studies on university campuses prompts academic libraries to consider how to support teaching and research in this area. This article examines current issues and challenges in the development of game collections at academic libraries. The gaming ecosystem has become more complex and libraries may need to move beyond collections largely based on console video games. This article will advance the discussion by considering emerging issues to support access to the full range of games. The article will use examples from Carleton University Library, Ottawa, which has been developing a game collection since 2008.
In this paper, we present a novel semidefinite programming approach for multiple-instance learning. We first formulate the multiple-instance learning as a combinatorial maximum margin optimization problem with additional instance selection constraints within the framework of support vector machines. Although solving this primal problem requires non-convex programming, we nevertheless can then derive an equivalent dual formulation that can be relaxed into a novel convex semidefinite programming (SDP). The relaxed SDP has free parameters where T is the number of instances, and can be solved using a standard interior-point method. Empirical study shows promising performance of the proposed SDP in comparison with the support vector machine approaches with heuristic optimization procedures.